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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EDUCATION   387

Ziller, however, working out his didactic problems at a time when
the Origin of Species had given the conception of evolution a new
definiteness, that difficulty does not seem to have occurred.   He
accepted the idea of correspondence, and attempted to bring it
into line with his faith in the primacy of morality in education
by  stressing   moral   rather   than   intellectual    development.
Assuming the ordinary school period to be eight years—extending
roughly from the age of seven to the age of fifteen—he sought to
provide for eight stages of moral development.    Since in his
judgment the young child is unable to attach any proper meaning
to moral and social relationships, he regarded the studies of the
first two years as merely preparatory.   In the first year, twelve
of Grimm's Fairy Tales furnished the core of instruction:
followed in the second year by Robinson Crusoe*  Each of the next
six years, however, has its own distinctive moral character, which
Ziller defined as follows:   (i) Submission to authority;   (2)
Reflection on authority; (3) Voluntary subordination to authority;
(4) Love for this authority; (5) Moral and religious self-culture;
and (6) Service of the community.   Going on the assumption that
humanity has passed through corresponding stages or epochs of
culture, he prescribed appropriate periods of religious and secular
history for study in each year.   The epochs of religious history
are—(i) The patriarchs; (2) The judges in Israel; (3) The kings
of Israel;   (4) The life of Jesus;   (5) The apostles;   (6) The
Reformation.   With each of these again is to be correlated an
epoch in secular world history.    Charlemagne and the other
founders of the German Empire, for example, are to be studied
at the same time as the kings of Israel   For the boys in the high
schools, there is a further correlation with the classics.   The
Odyssey, for example, goes with the story of the judges, and
Herodotus with the history of the kings of Israel.

Both inside and outside Herbartian circles Ziller's restatement
of Herbart's doctrines gave rise to fierce controversy, which con-
tinued to the beginning of the present century, and in its course
led to a voluminous output of educational works. But even more
important than his influence in stimulating thought regarding
educational principles was the impetus he gave to the working
out of the details of teaching method for the several school years
in a great variety of subjects* To his followers—most notable of
whom is Professor Rein of Jena—is due an elaboration of the